I have a soft spot for minimalist graphic representations of complex concepts. Following Julius Caesar's death Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. He completed his translation directly from the Vulgate into vernacular English in the year 1382, now known as Wycliffe's Bible. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 - 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. The works for which he is best-known are the Summa theologiae and the Summa Contra Gentiles. The administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution and has been described as an example of genius. He was also a cosmologist, logician, and musician. During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the riddling nature of his philosophy and his contempt for humankind in general, he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Schelling's thought in the large has been neglected, especially in the English-speaking world, as has been his later work on mythology and revelation, much of which remains untranslated. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. Weber's main intellectual concern was understanding the processes of rationalisation, secularisation, and "disenchantment" that he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity and which he saw as the result of a new way of thinking about the world. Thales attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythology and was tremendously influential in this respect. While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down centuries after he lived, so very little reliable information is known about him. In 1992 he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy for "symbolizing the open spirit of the 20th century" and for his "enormous influence on the formation of the modern intellectual climate". These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. Known by many as "The Occasional Philosopher," a term coined by David Hume. David Hume (1711 - 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism. Below is a timeline of art movements throughout history. Born into the House of Candia, he entered the Benedictine order at the Abbey of Bec at the age of 27, where he became abbot in 1079. A visual communication designer has created an interactive timeline of philosophical ideas that is impressive, useful, and beautiful. Marcus Aurelius' Stoic tome Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180, is still revered as a literary monument to a philosophy of service and duty, describing how to find and preserve equanimity in the midst of conflict by following nature as a source of guidance and inspiration. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. Leibniz occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy. Though his particular interpretations may have been condemned, they were conceived in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with approval from the heads of the Church. He often worked closely with his friend and fellow revolutionary socialist, Friedrich Engels. Those who identify with Luther's teachings are called Lutherans. Freud's parents were poor, but they ensured his education. Jean Buridan (in Latin, Johannes Buridanus) (ca. He was of distinguished parentage. It is customary for Catholic and Anglican churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on his feast day of October 4. John Philoponus (490 - 570 AD) also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was a Christian and Aristotelian commentator and the author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as "the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century". He was born in Monmouthshire, into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain. He developed a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher. The impossibility of knowledge, even in regard to our own ignorance or doubt, should induce the wise person to withdraw into themselves, avoiding the stress and emotion which belong to the contest of vain imaginings. Eckhart von Hochheim (c. 1260 - c. 1327), commonly known as Meister Eckhart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia in the Holy Roman Empire. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera, Thrace, Greece. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca; ca. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. The city council resisted the implementation of Calvin's and Farel's ideas, and both men were expelled. He has become well known for his critiques of U.S. foreign policy, state capitalism and the mainstream news media. Heraclitus is famous for his insistence on ever-present change in the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice". The general importance of Abelard lies in his having fixed more decisively than anyone before him the scholastic manner of philosophizing, with the object of giving a formally rational expression to received ecclesiastical doctrine. Whether or not his disciples believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality is unknown. Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. In the Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, and one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are finally turned against themselves and destroyed entirely." Chrysippus of Soli (c. 279 BC - c. 206 BC) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He is credited as the creator or co-creator of the Chomsky hierarchy, the universal grammar theory, and the Chomsky-Schutzenberger theorem. John Wycliffe (also spelt Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, or Wickliffe) (c. 1320 - 31 December 1384) was an English Scholastic philosopher, theologian, lay preacher, translator, reformer and university teacher at Oxford in England, who was known as an early dissident in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (February 28, 1533 - September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, known for popularising the essay as a literary genre, and commonly thought of as the father of modern skepticism. John Calvin (10 July 1509 - 27 May 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. On the basis of his clinical practice Freud went on to develop theories about the unconscious mind and the mechanism of repression, and created psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient (or "analysand") and a psychoanalyst. Auguste Comte (19 February 1798 - 5 September 1857), was a French philosopher. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. In his lifetime, he published just one book review, one article, a children's dictionary, and the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921). (Previously: famous lives in pictogram flowcharts; famous personalities in vector illustrations; famous songs as typographic … This led in turn to the award of a University lectureship in neuropathology, a post he resigned once he had decided to go into private practice.

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