Was wissen wir heute über diesen seltenen Vogel", "The Spix's Macaw Conservation Programmme A Non-extinction Story", "Climate Change, Adaptation and Desertification Control", "Spix's Macaw heads list of first bird extinctions confirmed this decade", "Loro Parque Fundación in Brazil to save the world’s rarest parrot", "Sheikh goes from collector to conservationist in effort to save the world's rarest parrot", "Al Wabra ICMBio Spix Presentation January 2012", "Qatari sheik takes endangered bird species under his wing", "Revisiting Rio Star Presley: Is there hope for the Spix's Macaw? [46][47] As of 2019, the IUCN classifies the species as extinct in the wild. However, not all of the macaw genera were represented in the study. [7] A 2011 study by the same authors which includes key genera of macaws further elucidates the macaw taxonomy: the clade diagram of that study places C. spixii in a clade including the macaw genera which is sister to a clade containing the Aratingas and other smaller parakeets. A note on the references. The species is named after German naturalist Johann Baptist von Spix, who collected the first specimens in 1819. The evolution of Spix’s macaw is poorly understood, but the parrot as a group is an ancient bird that probably evolved in the Paleogene period between 23 and 66 million years ago. Due to their particular nesting and foraging requirements, Spix’s macaw is vulnerable to this kind of upheaval. It is closely related to the blue-headed macaw, the red-bellied macaw, the great green macaw, the scarlet macaw, and many others. Highlights of the plan are to increase the captive population to 150 specimens (expected by 2020), build a breeding facility in Brazil within the Spix's native habitat, acquire and restore additional portions of its range, and prepare for its release into the wild between 2017 and 2021. The existing galleries are fringes of unique woodland extending a maximum of 18 m (59 ft) to either side along a series of seasonal waterways at least 8 m wide in the Rio São Francisco drainage basin. [81] In its 2014 sequel Rio 2, it is revealed that they are not the last pair at all, but in actuality other Spix's macaws are thriving secretly in the Amazon rainforest. [80], In the 2011 animated movie Rio, the main characters Blu (Jesse Eisenberg) and Jewel (Anne Hathaway) are the supposed last pair of Spix's macaws in the world (although they are referred to as blue macaws). These resulted in the world's first egg fertilisation and first chicks of the Spix's macaw as a result of assisted reproduction, performed et al-Wabra Wildlife Preservation. Presley died at the age of 40. In 1990, these were all that remained of what was once believed to be a vast filigree of creekside Caraibeira woodland extending 50 km into the Caatinga on either side of the Rio São Francisco along a significant stretch of its middle reaches. Due to deforestation in its limited range and specialized habitat, the bird has been rare in the wild throughout the twentieth century. Fructus amat, Murucuia imprimis. Some of the reasons for this include hunting (both by settlers and indigenous people), the destruction of the Caraibeira trees, and the introduction of African bees (which compete for nestling sites in the trees). [27] Pursuant to the plan, in 2012, the Brazilian government established NEST, a private aviary near Avaré, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil as a breeding and staging center for eventual release of the Spix into the wild. Here you can see the first group of Spix's Macaws chosen for return to Brazil in one of the enormous flocking aviaries at ACTP. [17] It has a wing length of 24.7–30.0 cm (9.7–11.8 in). The chicks fledge in 70 days and are independent in 100–130 days. [1], In the middle 1980s, by the time fieldwork to locate and understand the habitat of the Spix was completed, it was apparent that the Spix must be nearing extinction in the wild. The Spix's at NEST are owned by the Brazilian government and managed by Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation. [17], In May 2012, Brazil's ICMBio formulated and published a 5-year National Action Plan (PAN) for conservation and reestablishment of the species in the wild. [24], With the passage of the Brazil Wildlife Protection Act in 1967, Brazil forbade the export of its wildlife, and in 1975 became a party to the CITES treaty. Along with crows and ravens, parrots are considered to be some of the most intelligent birds on the earth. They may occasionally move from place to place in response to food availability and nesting sites, but they otherwise remain within a limited range of their home. The study also states that diversification of the Neotropical parrot lineages occurred starting 33 mya, a period roughly coinciding with the separation of South America from West Antarctica. In 1974, Brazilian ornithologist Helmut Sick observed groups of three and four of the birds near Formosa do Rio Preta in northwest Bahia flying over buriti Palms (Mauritia flexuosa). The birds live in hollows and cavities along the crown of the tree. [69], One of the earliest records (and one of very few at all) of a Spix's macaw in a public zoo was a dramatic display of "the four blues" including Spix's, glaucous, hyacinth, and Lear's macaws in 1900 at the Berlin Zoo. The couple engaged in typical relationship behavior. Within the macaw clade, C. spixii was the first taxon to diverge from the ancestral macaws; its nearest relatives are the red-bellied macaw (Orthopsittaca manilata) and the blue-headed macaw (Primolius couloni). In 1974, ornithologist Helmut Sick, based on information from traders and trappers, extended the possible range of the Spix's macaw to embrace the northeastern part of the state of Goias and the southern part of the state of Maranhao. In addition to habitat loss and predation, the lucrative bird trade further depleted numbers in the wild. It is a member of tribe Arini in the subfamily Arinae (Neotropical parrots), part of the family Psittacidae (the true parrots). The bird’s breeding season takes place each year between November and March (or August in captivity). [19], Notable among the seasonal waterways are Riacho Melância watershed 30 km south of Curaçá, where the last known wild Spix's macaw nest was located, adjacent Riacho Barra Grande, and Riacho da Vargem ~100 km to the north near Abaré all in the State of Bahia south of Rio São Francisco. ", "Jurong Bird Park now home to world's rarest blue macaws", "Managing the World's Largest Population of Spix's Macaws", "Developing a New Insemination Technique", "A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes)", "Qatar efforts give hope to rare parrot species", "O projeto para salvar a ararinha-azul da extinção", "Dozens of last blue macaws to be reintroduced to Brazil", Birdlife International: Spix's macaw factsheet, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spix%27s_macaw&oldid=985104657, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Adult in Vogelpark Walsrode, Germany in 1980 (approx), Phylogeny and relationships of macaws and allies, Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, Qatar, Association for the Conservation of Threatened Parrots (ACTP), Berlin, Germany, Loro Parque Foundation (LPF), Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 00:08. Spix’s macaw is one of the rarest and most endangered parrots in the world. Extending 26 feet into the air, these trees grow along at regular intervals along the banks of the river and its tributaries. Decline and possible extinction in the wild, Note: table data based on "Al Wabra ICMBio data from June 2013" and Watson, R. (Studbook Keeper) 2011. The goal of the Association is to produce about 20 macaws per year. The sound is made by creating a low rumble in the abdomen bringing the sound up to a high pitch. [17], Captive bred Spix's macaws reach sexual maturity at seven years of age.

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