Process design is the ensemble of operations leading from the design geometry to the dieface. 9 Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight Sheet Metal Cutting & Forming Processes-General-The raw material for sheet metal manufacturing processes is the output of the rolling process. Wang, Cheng-Hua, et al. virtually every metal fabrication process in industrial applications. Therefore the first step in any sheet metal process is to cut the correct shape and sized ‘blank’from larger sheet. In low carbon steel sheet metal, the minimum radius of a bend should be one-half the material thickness or 0.80 mm Marking tools . Making Holes •“Church key” can opener •Twist drills (lousy in sheet metal) •Step drills (great in sheet metal) –small •Hole saws (bimetal and carbide teeth) - large •Hollow punches •Hand punches Sheet Metal Forming 2.810 D. Cooper !“Sheet Metal Forming” Ch. Design For Manufacturability – Sheet Metal Guidelines Bends For the ease of manufacturing, multiple bends on the same plane should occur in the same direction. Measuring tools . Avoid large sheet metal parts with small bent flanges. In bending and embossing of sheet metal, the female die is replaced with rubber pad Rubber pad forming (RPF) is a metalworking process where sheet metal is pressed between a die and a rubber block, made of polyurethane. •Sheet metal gauge . Design and manufacturing of sheet metal parts: Using features to aid process plan-ning and resolve manufacturability problems. 16 Kalpakjian !“Design for Sheetmetal Working”, Ch. Typically, sheets of metal are sold as flat, rectangular sheets of standard size. Thanks to ABB six-axis robots, automation can be implemented throughout the production line – from cutting steel plate or tubes, via a range of processing applications, to shipment of the finished part. Under pressure, the rubber and sheet metal are driven into the die and conform to its shape, forming the part. ... all other factors influencing sheet metal forming, we should recall that a sheet metal forming operation can always be, from the conceptual point of view, divided in two stages:

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