All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. In Prunus, fruit set and productivity appears to be limited by gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) which is controlled by the S-Locus. Fruits",, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles needing additional references from June 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 06:57. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Vol. The leaves are long and shiny, resembling a sourwood’s. McVaugh – black cherry P: Variety Prunus serotina Ehrh. Prunus serotina, ext. Flowers are small, white and 5-petalled, in racemes 4–6 in (10–15 cm) long which contain several dozen flowers. A key to all the subspecies of Prunus serotina, modified from that of McVaugh (1951), is provided below. [5][9], For about its first decade the bark of a black cherry tree is thin, smooth, and banded, resembling a birch. Landowner Factsheet In the Midwest, it is seen growing mostly in old fields with other sunlight-loving species, such as black walnut, black locust, and hackberry. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are white. [17][18], Prunus serotina subsp. Backhuys Publ. virens (Wooton & Standl.) The hard, reddish-brown wood takes a fine polish and is commercially valued for use in a large number of products such as furniture, veneers, cabinets, interior paneling, gun stocks, instrument/tool handles, and musical instruments. The Plants Database includes the following 5 subspecies of Prunus serotina . Prunus serotina, commonly called black cherry, wild cherry or wild rum cherry, is native to eastern North America, Mexico and Central America.In Missouri, it typically occurs in both lowland and upland woods and along streams throughout the state (Steyermark). More Information: USDAFS FEIS Silvics VII. Fruit: Dark purple round drupe, almost black when ripe, 1/3 inch in diameter with a bitter-sweet taste; matures in late summer. [19], Like apricots and apples, the seeds of black cherries contain cyanogenic glycosides, compounds that can be converted into cyanide, such as amygdalin. Gleason and Cronquist (1991) describe P. serotina as "[f]ormerly a forest tree, now abundant as a weed-tree of roadsides, waste land, and forest-margins". Species: Prunus serotina Ehrh. Capuli (Prunus serotina subsp. Bark: Smooth with numerous short, narrow, horizontal lenticels when young; becomes very dark (nearly black), breaking up into small, rough, irregular, upturned plates (burnt corn flakes), when older. black cherry Rosaceae Prunus serotina Ehrh. The species is widespread and common in North America and South America.[5][6][7][8]. Prunus virginiana: leaf blades with mostly 8-11 pairs of lateral veins and sepals conspicuously toothed with gland-tipped teeth, deciduous in fruit (vs. P. serotina, with leaf blades with more than 15 pairs of lateral veins and sepals entire or sparsely gland-toothed, persistent in fruit). A mature tree has very broken, dark grey to black bark. Substance identity Substance identity. Seed production begins around 10 years of age, but does not become heavy until 30 years and continues up to 100 years or more. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia, Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127(1–2): i–viii, 1–1744. McVaugh – black cherry P: Subspecies Prunus serotina Ehrh. Prunus serotina, commonly called black cherry, wild black cherry, rum cherry,[3] or mountain black cherry, is a deciduous tree or shrub[4] belonging to the genus Prunus. Jørgensen, P. M., M. H. Nee & S. G. Beck. USDAFS Silvics of North America - Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist. [24] Farmers are recommended to remove any trees that fall in a field containing livestock, because the wilted leaves could poison the animals. Rosaceae - Attributes: Genus: Prunus Species: serotina Family: Rosaceae Uses (Ethnobotany): Native Americans used the inner bark to treat colds. Some seeds however may remain in the soil bank and not germinate for as long as three years. black cherry - American plum USDAFS Forest Products Lab Flowers are small, white and 5-petalled, in racemes 4–6 in (10–15 cm) long which contain several dozen flowers. The flowers give rise to reddish-black "berries" (drupes) fed on by birds,[4] 5–10 mm (1⁄4–3⁄8 in) in diameter. (eds.) Its density when dried is around 580 kg/m3 (36 lb/cu ft). [20][21] These compounds release hydrogen cyanide when the seed is ground or minced, which releases enzymes that break down the compounds. [12] It is a moderately long-lived tree, with ages of up to 258 years known, though it is prone to storm damage, with branches breaking easily; any decay resulting, however, only progresses slowly. The wood of Prunus serotina is also used as a spice in foods, as it imparts a unique flavor. Download the full-size PDF map. An almond-like odor is released when a young twig is scratched and held close to the nose, revealing minute amounts of cyanide compounds produced and stored by the plant as a defense mechanism against herbivores.[10][11]. Gleason and Cronquist (1991) describe P. serotina as "[f]ormerly a forest tree, now abundant as a weed-tree of roadsides, waste land, and forest-margins". [14] It has acted as an invasive species there, negatively affecting forest community biodiversity and regeneration. Prunus virginiana, commonly called bitter-berry, chokecherry, ... (Prunus serotina) of eastern North America; it is most readily distinguished from that by its smaller size (black cherry trees can reach 100 ft tall), smaller leaves, and sometimes red ripe fruit. All Prunus species have hard seeds that benefit from scarification to germinate (which in nature is produced by passing through an animal's digestive tract). Print infocard. Prunus serotina is a medium-sized, fast-growing forest tree growing to a height of 50–80 ft (15–24 m). Fall leaf color is yellow to red. "Black cherry" redirects here. [22] In contrast, although the flesh of cherries also contains these compounds, it does not contain the enzymes needed to produce cyanide, so the flesh is safe to eat.[23]. Black cherry is a leading cause of livestock illness,[citation needed] and grazing animals' access to it should be limited. Prunus serotina Ehrh. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. The eastern tent caterpillar defoliates entire groves some springs. Black cherry is closely related to the chokecherry (Prunus virginiana); chokecherry, however, tends to be shorter (a shrub or small tree) and has smaller, less glossy leaves.

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