Peter Singer was the third great theorist of utilitarianism, after Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mills. […] Omar Miller March 31, 2019, 7:18 pm Reply, wow thank God i found this site i am preparing for my midterms and i wish i found this site long ago the detail is so easy to read and understand thank you for the effort. He believed it was too difficult for a society to run if it had to consider the specific costs/benefits of every single action. Question: "What is consequentialist ethics / consequentialism?" Ethical theories Two types of ethical theories (i) Teleological theories Value based theories = An act is morally right if it promotes the good or what has value. The machine rationally decides that the only way to do so is to eliminate or subjugate humanity. This might be contrasted with Confucianism and Mohism, two consequentialist philosophies of China, sometimes called “state consequentialism” – where the most moral actions are those with the best consequences for the state. In order to determine the best course of action according to consequentialism, you have to add up the total negative and positive consequences and subtract one from the other, like you do when you use a pro / con list to help you make a decision. As a result, some theories of prudence are structurally identical with the consequentialist … Especially if one refers to Aristotle, who argued that the greatest human happiness is to be achieved through the fulfillment of human virtues. So, if one factors in the benefits of equality, it may be better for everyone to distribute sources of well-being rather than hoarding them. His quote also alludes to the fact that utilitarianism weigh the consequences of acts equally with the consequences of non-acts (“omissions”) whereas deontological ethics allow one to consider the rightness of an act or non-act without considering the other side; the idea that “violence is always wrong” does not consider the possible negative consequences of non-violence. You may have heard the consequentialist motto “the end justifies the means.”  Which ends justify one’s actions—whether happiness, health, or freedom, for oneself, or for others, or something else—differ in different consequentialist philosophies, but human happiness is by far the most common. Out of these two ethical theories I believe Consequentialism to be least likely to be false. John Stuart Mill, a student of Bentham’s, disagreed. Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China. But for the most part, the west was dominated by the deontological ethics of Judaism and Christianity until the 17the century when rationalism became popular again. b.We humans are unable to fully determine the consequences of our actions. What is most non-consequentialist about Judaism and Christianity? For example, let’s suppose economists could prove that the world economy would be stronger, and that most people would be happier, healthier, and wealthier, if we just enslaved 2% of the population. Most consequentialists would not say that any of these principles should automatically be upheld in every situation, unless they believe in a kind of consequentialism where that principle is the end that justifies all means. Does the embryo suffer? His argument emphasizes the opposition of consequentialism to universal (”no matter what”) rules. For example, you need to consider not only the degree of happiness caused by an action, but also the number of people affected and for how long. And since most actions have both positive and negative consequences, it is often far from clear how to resolve the consequentialist equation. Consequentialism is controversial because many people believe that certain things, such as justice, truth, selflessness, or obedience to God, embody the highest good. This is an old idea in science-fiction, appearing also in the 50s film The Day the Earth Stood Still in which enlightened extra-terrestrials come to the same conclusion. Here, he presents a consequentialist justification for the legality of abortion. “Pacifists have usually regarded the use of violence as absolutely wrong, irrespective of its consequences. b.They are partial to the happiness of their own members. (Presumably not if it is aborted before it has a nervous system; and even if it is old enough to have a nervous system it surely suffers less than, say, an adult cow in a slaughterhouse.) Of, course, one could also make “equality” one of the ends in one’s consequentialism: “Do whatever leads to the greatest happiness and equality.”. d.If the victim doesn’t suffer, it’s not wrong. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); “A consequentialist or utilitarian is likely to approach the abortion question in a very different way, by trying to weigh up suffering. Personal rights: Another objection to consequentialism is that it could easily require one to violate others’ rights to happiness and well-being. So, for example, according to rule consequentialism we consider lying to be wrong because we know that in general lying produces bad consequences. Consequentialism seems one of the many ethical issues examined by this popular show. Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. Some philosophers think the rationality of all practical deliberation should be assessed by using the basic idea of maximizing some value. (a) Consequentialism (and utilitarianism) Whether an act is morally right depends solely on consequences or the goodness of consequences. Three Methods of Ethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997), 128. This superhero film explores an idea that’s become well-known; that an advanced artificial intelligence, created by human beings, might decide to wipe out humanity – in this case, because of consequentialist ethics. The term ‘consequentialism’ was coined by the philosopher G E M Anscombe in her 1958 paper, ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’ (Philosophy 33, No. Starting in the 18th Century with Jeremey Bentham, and later John Stuart Mill and Peter Singer, consequentialism has become almost synonymous with utilitarianism, which is now the most thoroughly thought-out of consequentialist philosophies. 124). It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. Consequential Ethical theory It is a part of normative ethical theories and it means that the consequence of ones behavior is an ultimate mean for anyone to judge the rightness or wrongness of that behavior. Some would call it “negative consequentialism” because it focuses more on reducing suffering than increasing happiness, which seems to be a feature of most ancient philosophies (life was rough then). Utilitarianism judges consequences by a “greatest good for the greatest number” standard. It would be easy to see Breaking Bad as a critique of consequentialism, although not of utilitarianism, since it is clear that the suffering of strangers does not weigh highly in Walter’s calculations.

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