[37], The Butt Report, circulated in August 1941, found that in 1940 and 1941 only one in three attacking aircraft got within five miles (eight kilometres) of their target. [78][79] In the same year he returned to the UK, and lived his remaining years in the Ferry House in Goring-on-Thames, located directly adjacent to the River Thames. I’ve come to the conclusion that people who say that sort of thing not only have never been outside, but they’ve never looked out of a window. In Gary Sheffield, ed. As an example, quoting Albert Speer from his book Inside The Third Reich, "ten thousand [88mm] anti-aircraft guns ... could well have been employed in Russia against tanks and other ground targets". Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet GCB OBE AFC (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris,[a] was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the height of the Anglo-American strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in the Second World War. [83] She later married the Hon. [64] After that, most of the rest of the attacks made by the RAF were tactical missions. Gilmour, Ian and Andrew. People talk a lot about picking out targets and bombing them, individual small targets – in the European climate? He joined the Royal Flying Corps, with which he remained until the formation of the Royal Air Force in 1918. [54] Huggins replied that he was sympathetic, but that none of these ideas was practical: Harris would be too old by the time a new Governor was needed; it might take years for Harris to enter Southern Rhodesian politics as he would first need to meet residency requirements, then cultivate support in a constituency; and Huggins felt he could not make promises about aviation posts with a general election coming up the following year. [12], Harris learned to fly at Brooklands in late 1915 and, having been confirmed in his rank[13] and then promoted to flying officer on 29 January 1916,[14] he then served with distinction on the home front and in France during 1917 as a flight commander and ultimately CO of No. "If I have deserved anything of my country—Rhodesia—it would delight me to have opportunity to serve her further," he wrote. The American history also includes information from Albert Speer, in which he points out that Bomber Command's night attacks were the most effective. [24] He helped devise area bombing in Iraq in 1923. Harris quickly gained his employer's trust, and was made farm manager at Lowdale when Townsend went to visit England for a year in early 1914. At first the effects were limited because of the small numbers of aircraft used and the lack of navigational aids, resulting in scattered, inaccurate bombing. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 21:25. [56] Harris was promoted to the substantive rank of air chief marshal on 16 August 1944. Britain: Bomber Harris speech ("They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind"). 'I would have destroyed Dresden again': Bomber Harris was unrepentant over German city raids 30 years after the end of World War Two. At the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, Harris took command of No. [22] Harris also contributed at this time to the development of bombing using delay-action bombs, which were then applied to keep down uprisings of the Mesopotamian people fighting against British occupation. Harris remained in the Air Force through the 1920s and 1930s, serving in India, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, Palestine, and elsewhere. In spite of all that happened at Hamburg, bombing proved a relatively humane method. 1, Burke's Peerage Ltd, 2003, p. 828, Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, of Stowford, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Officer of the Order of the British Empire, Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta, Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross, "The 1920s British air bombing campaign in Iraq - BBC News", "The Thousand Bomber raids, 30/31 May (Cologne) to 17 August 1942", "Sir Arthur Harris and some myths and controversies of the bomber offensive, Journal 47", "Heroes & Villains – Churchill & Dresden – Was Churchill responsible? 58). [54] Harris finally dropped his dream of a return to Rhodesia, deeming it unworkable, and in 1948 moved instead to South Africa, where he managed the South African Marine Corporation (Safmarine) from 1946 to 1953. This is a doctrine to which I could never subscribe. It was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother who looked surprised when she was jeered by protesters, one of whom shouted, "Harris was a war criminal." They are not by-products of attempts to hit factories. Statement of 1942, at the start of the bombing campaign against Germany, as quoted in "Sir Arthur Harris & The Lancaster Bomber" at The British Postal Museum and Archive We are going to scourge the Third Reich from end to end. [6] He received a more permanent position in November 1913, when he was taken on by Crofton Townsend, a man from near Cork in Ireland who had moved to Rhodesia and founded Lowdale Farm near Mazoe in Mashonaland in 1903. [54], Before the D-Day invasion in 1944, Harris was ordered to switch targets for the French railway network, a switch he protested because he felt it compromised the pressure being applied to German industry and using Bomber Command for a purpose it was not designed or suited for. This page was last edited on 30 August 2020, at 23:34. [5] Harris earned his living over the next few years mining, coach-driving and farming. [15][16] Intending to return to Rhodesia one day, Harris wore a ".mw-parser-output span.smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}.mw-parser-output span.smallcaps-smaller{font-size:85%}rhodesia" shoulder flash on his uniform. [65], In his postwar memoirs Harris wrote, "In spite of all that happened at Hamburg, bombing proved a relatively humane method".

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