[26] Pioneering marine biologist Jeanne Villepreux-Power kept two tame beech martens. The winter coat is quite dark, brownish-tawny or dark tawny with a greyish tint. The patch is large and generally has two projections extending backwards to the base of the forelegs and upward on the legs. [22] Mating occurs in the June–July period, and takes place in the morning or in moonlit nights on the ground or on the roofs of houses. There is, however, a seasonal peak in marten attacks on cars in spring, when young martens explore their surroundings more often and have yet to learn which items in their habitat are edible or not. Plant foods eaten by the beech marten include cherries, apples, pears, plums, black nightshade, tomatoes, grapes, raspberriesand mountain ash. The beech marten is mainly a crepuscular and nocturnal animal, though to a much lesser extent than the European polecat. At 15 - 27 months old they reach reproductive maturity. The guard hairs are tawny or chestnut brown, while the underfur is very light, pale-grey. They are also hunted for their fur in India, Russia and other countries. A beech marten can slice through the cables of a starter motor with just one bite. The omnivorous marten will eat what is plentiful: in Britain, small mammals make up at least 40% of their diet. American marten is polygynous, which means that one male mates a number of females. In some eastern and southern regions the white streak is absent. The beech marten's diet includes a much higher quantity of plant food than that of the pine marten and sable. The tail measures 250–320 mm in males and 230–275 mm in females. During summer months in high mountain ranges, martens can be found up to as high as 4000 meters. Cute, smart and mischievous like a weasel, the Beech marten is native to much of Central Asia and Europe, although there is a feral population within North America. [2], In areas where the beech marten is sympatric with the pine marten, the two species avoid competing with one another by assuming different ecological niches; the pine marten feeds on birds and rodents more frequently, while the beech marten feeds on fruits and insects. Mating occurs from June to August (during midsummer) and gestation period lasts 7.5 - 9 months, including delayed implantation of 6.5 - 8 months. Instead, it nests in naturally occurring fissures and clefts in rocks, spaces between stones in rock slides and inhabited or uninhabited stone structures. Beech martens are captured with jaw traps, or, for live capture, with cage traps. Parturition takes place in late March-early April, with the average litter consisting of 3-7 kits. It occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and was recently confirmed to inhabit northern Burma. Because of its shorter limbs, the beech marten's manner of locomotion differs from that of the pine marten; the beech marten moves by creeping in a polecat-like manner, whereas the pine marten and sable move by bounds. The Stone Marten, sometimes known as Beech Marten, is widespread in most regions of France where there is adequate cover, buildings, trees or dense scrub. The Beech marten’s paws are not very big and are not covered with sufficient fur to ensure their movement across snow. Being a more terrestrial animal than the pine marten, the beech marten is less arboreal in its habits, though it can be a skilled climber in heavily forested areas. It is larger than other Old World martens; males measure 500 - 719 mm in body length, while females measure 500 - 620 mm. There is, however one case, from Germany, of a beech marten killing a domestic cat. They reach sexual maturity at 15 - 27 months old. The pine marten is found across much of Europe, from Ireland to Russia. Smart, cute and as mischievous as a weasel the Stone or Beech Marten (Martes foina) is widespread across France.A close cousin of the Pine Marten the Stone Marten is very similar but slightly smaller in size measuring 40 - 50cm in body length with a tail of between 20 - 30 cm. A buffy or white streak can be seen below the chin, reaching from the animal’s neck to its chest. [15] The beech marten's penis is larger than the pine marten's, with the bacula of young beech martens often outsizing those of old pine martens. Being a more terrestrial animal than the pine marten, the beech marten is less arborealin its habits, though it can be a skilled climber in heavily forested areas. Rats, mice and chickens are also eaten. [21], The beech marten's diet includes a much higher quantity of plant food than that of the pine marten and sable. A large subspecies with a massive skull. Males fiercely defend their territory against unwanted guests such as other males. It is also resident in parts of the Middle East. It typically hunts on the ground. An average home range measures 12 to 211 ha, the size varying with the season, with larger ranges during summer compared to in the winter. [citation needed], On 29 April and 21 November 2016, two beech martens shut down the Large Hadron Collider, the world's most powerful particle accelerator, by climbing on 18–66 kV electrical transformers located above ground near the LHCb and ALICE experiments, respectively. Because animals with more valuable pelts are rare in those areas, the beech marten is of value to hunters on the local market. Stone Martens or La Fouine. It is a skilled swimmer, and may occasionally be active during daytime hours, particularly in the summer, when nights are short. Stone marten, House marten, White breasted marten. The stone marten has been referred to as a generalist, and its diet is well known in many European countries, mainly in the central [9–11] and southwestern parts of its distribution [12–15]. [2], Its most likely ancestor is Martes vetus, which also gave rise to the pine marten. [4], The skull of the beech marten suggests a higher adaptation than the pine marten toward hypercarnivory, as indicated by its smaller head, shorter snout and its narrower post-orbital constriction and lesser emphasis on cheek teeth. For this reason, the Beech marten uses the paths made by hares and skis during the winter. Males weigh 2.5 - 5.7 kg, while females weigh 1.6 - 3.8 kg. During the day, Beech martens hide in the crevices of rocks or inside the hollow trees (in the wild) and in buildings (in urban areas). Within Europe, the species is absent in the British Isles, Scandinavian peninsula, Finland, Denmark, the northern Baltic and northern European Russia. Herra, J., Schley, L., Engel, E. & Roper, T. J. ; Posłuszny, M., Pilot, M., Goszczyński, J. [3] Beech martens indigenous to the Aegean Islands represent a relic population with primitive Asiatic affinities. Comparisons between fossil animals and their descendants indicate that the beech marten underwent a decrease in size beginning in the Würm period. Predators. Beech marten. [14] Males tend to target large, live prey more than females, who feed on small prey and carrion with greater frequency. Reproductive readiness and territorial boundaries are communicated through scent marking, and during the breeding season their cries can be heard. In Europe, the pine marten is sometimes confused with the beech marten (Martes foina). The beech marten (Martes foina), also known as the stone marten, house marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America. Beech martens were caught only in the Caucasus, in the Montane part of Crimea and (in very small numbers) in the rest of Ukraine, and in the republics of Middle Asia. [28], Since the mid-1970s, the beech marten has been known to occasionally cause damage to cars. It occurs from Spain and Portugal in the west, through Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, extending as far east as the Altai and Tien Shan mountains and northwest China. In forested regions they may contribute to the dispersal of seeds, and are regarded as important for the dispersal of fleshy-fruited plants in Central Europe’s forests. While the pine marten is a forest specialist, the beech marten is a more generalist and adaptable species, occurring in a number of open and forest habitats. The throat patch of the beech marten is always white. Plant food typically predominates during the winter months. Rats, mice and chickens are also eaten. Beech marten skins on the fur markets of the Soviet Union accounted for only 10-12% of the market presence of pine marten skins. There is, however, no evidence of these threats being intensive enough to cause significant declines across the species' range. When prowling, Beech martens will surprise prey animals by pouncing on them. [25], British zoologist George Rolleston theorised that the "domestic cat" of the Ancient Greeks and Romans was in fact the beech marten. Beech martens help control the pest populations of mice and rats in central Europe and are prey for foxes, wildcats and owls. Beech martens have the unusual habit of destroying the cables and tubes of vehicles in urban areas. The dark colour of the belly juts out between the forelegs as a line into the white colour of the chest and sometimes into the neck. Their gait varies with the speed they are traveling: if strolling, it is a meandering gait with parallel front feet while the hind feet are on a slight angle in relation to the front. The baculum is S-shaped, with four blunt processes occurring on the tip.

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